Table 1

Established thyroid cancer risk factors and thyroid cancer risk among participants in the multiethnic Bay Area Thyroid Cancer Study

Risk factorCasesControlsORa95% CI
Medical radiationb,c
 Head or neck2082.71.2–6.2
 Another area470.570.16–2.0
Benign thyroid diseased,e
 Goiter or nodules134364.73.1–7.2
 None of the above4554851.0
Family history of thyroid disease
 Thyroid cancer1636.11.8–21.3
 Goiter or nodules66282.61.7–4.2
 Hyper- or hypothyroidism74531.51.0–2.3
 Other or unknown type39411.00.65–1.6
 None of the above4064291.0
  • a Adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and education.

  • b More than 5 years before diagnosis/selection.

  • c One control reported radiation to the head/neck and another area.

  • d More than 2 years before diagnosis/selection.

  • e Thirty-three cases and 15 controls reported having been diagnosed with two or more types of benign thyroid disease during their lifetime.