Table 2

“All meat” exposure definitions and risk of colorectal cancer

Author, year; exposurePublished estimate (95% CI)aDerived estimate for 100-g increment in “All meat” consumptionb (95% CI)a
Gaard et al., 1996 (21) ; total meat
 Females1.87 (0.77–4.86)1.57 (0.80–3.06)
 Males0.80 (0.35–1.86)0.78 (0.42–1.44)
Giovannucci et al., 1994 (22) ; red meat
 Males1.71 (1.15–2.55)1.73 (1.25–2.39)
Goldbohm et al., 1994 (23) ; fresh meat
 Females0.88 (0.45–1.69)0.96 (0.65–1.41)
 Males0.87 (0.43–1.77)0.87 (0.46–1.64)
Hirayama et al., 1990 (28) ; meat
 Females1.05 (0.64–1.75)1.45 (0.70–2.99)
 Males0.53 (0.23–1.19)0.55 (0.20–1.55)
Hsing et al., 1998 (27) ; red meat
 Males1.80 (0.8–4.4)1.14 (0.92–1.40)
Kato et al., 1997 (20) ; red meat
 Females1.23 (0.68–2.22)1.56 (0.73–3.34)
Knekt et al., 1999 (17) ; other meat
 Males and females1.19 (0.51–2.76)1.21 (0.76–1.92)
Phillips et al., 1985 (26) ; meat
 Females0.7 (0.3–1.4)0.76 (0.38–1.51)
 Males1.5 (0.7–3.3)1.51 (0.69–3.32)
Sellers et al., 1998 (18) ; all meat
 Females1.13 (0.77–1.64)1.06 (0.89–1.25)
Singh et al., 1998 (19) ; total meat
 Males and females1.85 (1.16–2.87)1.28 (1.05–1.57)
Thun et al., 1992 (24) ; fatty meat
 Females1.05 (0.78–1.41)1.03 (0.88–1.20)
 Males1.21 (0.92–1.59)1.07 (0.95–1.21)
Willett et al., 1990 (25) ; red meat
 Females1.77 (1.09–2.88)1.50 (1.09–2.07)
  • a Risk estimate for highest versus lowest intake of meat. CI, confidence interval.

  • b Based on data from all quantiles using standard weighted least-squares regression with adjustment for covariance.