Table 1

List of studies used in the review and meta-analysis and their selected characteristics

Author, year publishedCountryAge at entry; sexYears of follow-up; % completed follow-upStart of follow-upNo. of cases; No. in cohortDietary assessment;a QuantilesbAdjustments
Bjelke et al., 1980 (29)Norway45–74; M5; not stated196841;c 12,16650-item FFQ; Q3Age
Gaard et al., 1996 (21)Norway20–54; M & FMean 11.4; 831977143;c 55,53580-item FFQ;d Q4Age; attained age
Giovannucci et al., 1994 (22)USA40–75; M6; 951986205;c 47,949131-item FFQ;d Q5Age; energy intake
Goldbohm et al., 1994 (23)Netherlands55–69; M & F3.3; 951986293;c 3,123150-item FFQ;d Q4 & Q5Age; total calories
Hirayama et al., 1990 (28)Japan>40; M & F17; 801965725; 265,1139-item FFQ (7 food groups & 2 beverages); Q4Age
Hsing et al., 1998 (27)USA≥35; M20; 771966145; 13,60635-item FFQ; Q5Total calories; age; smoking; alcohol
Kato et al., 1997 (20)USA34–65; FMean 7.1; (97 in New York State recruits)1985–1991100;c 14,72770-item FFQ; Q4Total calories; age; place of enrollment; education
Knekt et al., 1999 (17)Finland15–99; M & F24; not stated196773;c 9,9901 year dietary history interview; Q4Age; sex; municipality; smoking; energy intake
Phillips et al., 1985 (26)USA>30; M & F21; not stated1960172; 25,43921-item FFQ; Q3Age; sex
Sellers et al., 1998 (18)USA55–69; F9; 761986241;c 26,937127-item FFQ;d Q3Age; energy intake
Singh et al., 1998 (19)USA25–104; M & F6; 971977179;c 32,05155-item FFQ;d Q3Age; body mass index; sex; smoking; physical activity; family history; alcohol; aspirin use
Thun et al., 1992 (24) eUSA30–110; M & F6; 9819821,150; 5,74642-item FFQ (32 food items & 10 beverages); Q5None
Willett et al., 1990 (25)USA34–59; F6; 961980150;c 88,75161-item FFQ;d Q5Age; energy intake
  • a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

  • b Quantiles. Q3 = tertiles; Q4 = quartiles; Q5 = quintiles.

  • c Incident cases.

  • d Undertook validation of dietary assessment.

  • e Nested case control.