Table 2

Serum carotenoid concentrations as associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; American Indian dysplasia study, 1994–1997

CarotenoidsControls n = 160 No. (%)Cases n = 81 No. (%)CrudeAdjusted**
OR95% CIOR95% CI
α-Carotene (μg/dl)
 6.5–12.753 (33.1)42 (51.8)1.01.0
 12.8–18.053 (33.1)21 (25.9)0.500.26–0.960.520.24–1.12
 18.1–87.354 (33.8)18 (22.2)0.420.23–0.860.460.21–1.00
 Test for trendP = 0.01P = 0.04
β-Carotene (μg/dl)
 11–2456 (35.0)32 (39.5)1.01.0
 25–3851 (31.9)33 (40.7)1.130.61–2.10.960.45–2.03
 39–17453 (33.1)16 (19.8)0.530.26–1.10.460.20–1.07
 Test for trendP = 0.10P = 0.08
β-Cryptoxanthin (μg/dl)
 2.2–6.455 (34.4)34 (42.0)1.01.0
 6.5–10.352 (32.5)31 (38.3)0.960.52–1.790.800.38–1.69
 10.4–30.353 (33.1)16 (19.7)0.490.24–0.990.390.17–0.91
 Test for trendP = 0.06P = 0.03
Lycopene (μg/dl)
 14.8–30.753 (33.1)37 (45.7)1.01.0
 30.8–40.754 (33.8)25 (30.9)0.660.35–1.250.880.41 –1.89
 40.8–69.853 (33.1)19 (23.4)0.510.26–1.000.850.38–1.91
 Test for trendP = 0.05P = 0.69
Lutein/Zeaxanthin (μg/dl)
 12–2149 (30.6)34 (42.0)1.01.0
 22–2855 (34.4)31 (38.3)0.810.44–1.510.600.28–1.28
 29–7656 (35.0)16 (19.7)0.410.20–0.840.400.17–0.95
 Test for trendP = 0.02P = 0.03
  • aAdjusted for age, cervical infection with any type of HPV, income, and urban vs rural residence.