Table 1

Average energy and nutrient intake of intervention and control women as estimated before the start and towards the end of the study

NutrientsDietary intake before randomization (from food frequency questionnaire)Intake in the 4th month of the study (24-h recall interview)
Intervention group g/day (SD)Control group g/day (SD)Both groups % caloriesIntervention group g/day% caloriesControl group g/day% calories
Protein, total93.3 (24.8)89.3 (34.4)16.661.015.768.415.2
Animal63.1 (18.6)60.7 (25.5)11.417.94.641.39.2
Vegetable30.2 (11.8)28.5 (12.6)5.243.011.126.96.0
Lipid, total93.8 (30.4)90.1 (36.4)37.153.030.865.933.0
Animal47.2 (18.3)48.2 (24.6)19.19.75.628.414.2
Vegetable46.7 (20.2)41.9 (20.0)18.043.025.036.818.3
Saturated32.1 (11.9)31.5 (14.5)12.710.66.220.210.1
Monounsaturated45.2 (14.8)42.6 (18.5)17.825.114.631.815.9
Oleic42.7 (14.2)40.2 (17.6)16.823.713.829.814.9
Polyunsaturated11.4 (6.8)10.9 (4.9)4.512.87.410.05.0
Linoleic9.3 (6.4)8.9 (4.4)3.79.55.57.83.9
α-linolenic1.4 (0.5)1.3 (0.5)0.52.41.41.10.5
Other0.7 (0.3)0.6 (0.3)0.30.70.40.90.4
Cholesterol (mg/day)375 (113)352 (152)73.8235.9
Carbohydrates257.0 (89.4)246.5 (99.8)42.3212.151.3225.947.0
Sugar106.6 (44.0)98.5 (46.0)17.471.117.298.620.5
Starch150.1 (63.8)147.6 (73.9)24.9135.232.7126.726.3
Dietary fiber23.4 (8.1)21.3 (8.3)35.523.3
Alcohol11.3 (11.8)13.8 (16.4)4.04.82.212.54.8
Energy (kcal/day)2261.7 (647.4)2190.1 (818.0)1001550.01001805.0a100
  • a The estimated mean energy requirement, calculated from body weight measured at time of the 24-h recall interview and assuming a sedentary life style (55) , was 1955 and 1979 kcal/day, respectively, for intervention and control women, suggesting that the frequency questionnaire overestimated and that the 24-h recall interview underestimated energy intake by about 10%.