Table 3

RRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer mortality associated with daily use of vitamin C or vitamin E supplements by attained age, multivitamin use, follow-up year, and tumor subsitea: CPS-II, 1982–1996

Vitamin C supplementsVitamin E supplements
<10 years of use≥10 years of use<10 years of use≥10 years of use
Attained age (yrs)
<65
RR (95% CI)0.75 (0.54–1.05)0.48 (0.28–0.81)0.81 (0.56–1.17)1.52 (0.86–2.70)
Deathsb54234219
≥65
RR (95% CI)1.08 (0.91–1.28)1.02 (0.83–1.26)0.89 (0.73–1.08)1.00 (0.77–1.31)
Deathsb19814615189
Multivitamin usec
No use
RR (95% CI)1.02 (0.84–1.25)0.91 (0.67–1.21)0.84 (0.66–1.07)1.23 (0.86–1.77)
Deathsb135709748
Daily use
RR (95% CI)0.96 (0.76–1.21)0.89 (0.68–1.17)0.89 (0.70–1.15)1.02 (0.74–1.42)
Deathsb113939358
Follow-up year
1982–1989
RR (95% CI)0.91 (0.71–1.16)0.77 (0.56–1.07)0.71 (0.53–0.95)1.08 (0.74–1.58)
Deathsb90636343
1990–1996
RR (95% CI)1.05 (0.87–1.27)0.98 (0.76–1.26)0.98 (0.79–1.21)1.09 (0.80–1.49)
Deathsb16210613065
Subsite
Colon
RR (95% CI)0.98 (0.83–1.15)0.98 (0.80–1.20)0.91 (0.76–1.10)1.02 (0.79–1.31)
Deathsb21515617193
Rectum
RR (95% CI)1.08 (0.73–1.62)0.40 (0.20–0.80)0.61 (0.37–1.01)1.78 (0.94–3.35)
Deathsb37132215
  • a This includes both sexes. Adjusted for age, sex, education, BMI, vegetable consumption, consumption of high-fiber grain foods, vitamin supplement use (vitamins A, C, or E and multivitamin supplements), and use of aspirin and estrogen replacement therapy.

  • b Deaths among users of specified vitamin supplement only.

  • c Multivitamin use at study baseline, less than daily multivitamin users excluded.