Table 2

RRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer mortality associated with daily use of vitamin C or vitamin E supplements at cohort enrollmenta: CPS-II, 1982–1996

Men and women combinedMen onlyWomen only
Vitamin C use
Nonuser
RR1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
Deaths/participants3,914/615,8672,200/293,8211,714/322,046
<10 yrs
RR0.991.150.84
95% CI0.85–1.150.94–1.400.67–1.05
Deaths/participants252/48,139146/19,346106/28,793
≥10 yrs
RR0.890.751.05
95% CI0.73–1.090.57–1.000.80–1.38
Deaths/participants169/30,49580/13,25189/17,244
Vitamin E use
Nonuser
RR1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
Deaths/participants4,035/642,7612,272/306,3741,763/336,387
<10 yrs
RR0.870.820.92
95% CI0.73–1.030.64–1.040.72–1.17
Deaths/participants193/39,75799/14,71994/25,038
≥10 yrs
RR1.081.131.05
95% CI0.85–1.380.82–1.570.73–1.49
Deaths/participants108/16,35059/7,55549/8,795
  • a Adjusted for age, sex (for combined sex results), education, BMI, vegetable consumption, consumption of high-fiber grain foods, vitamin supplement use (vitamins A, C, or E and multivitamin supplements), and use of aspirin and estrogen replacement therapy.