Table 1

Colorectal cancer mortality risk factors by use of vitamin C and vitamin E supplements at cohort enrollmenta: CPS-II, 1982–1996

WomenMen
No vitamin C or E use (n = 310,166) %Vitamin C daily use (n = 46,037)b %Vitamin E daily use (n = 33,833)c %No vitamin C or E use (n = 286,376) %Vitamin C daily use (n = 32,597)b %Vitamin E daily use (n = 22,274)c %
Age (yrs)
30–395.94.43.33.92.71.6
40–4924.321.521.119.616.213.2
50–5934.438.640.638.638.838.4
60–6924.226.926.827.331.835.1
70–799.27.57.29.19.510.6
≥802.11.21.01.41.11.1
Race
White93.296.696.694.597.296.9
Black4.71.71.83.41.21.4
Other2.11.71.72.01.61.6
Education
Less than high school13.87.89.016.29.010.7
High school graduate32.627.630.021.415.517.0
Some college29.033.733.526.827.429.2
College graduate14.817.315.517.622.420.6
Graduate school9.913.612.018.025.822.5
BMI (kg/m2)
<20.09.412.111.42.32.11.9
20.0–<22.524.831.130.69.812.110.8
22.5–<25.025.526.126.626.031.329.7
25.0–<27.518.516.016.133.933.634.8
27.5–<30.09.26.77.016.713.314.3
≥30.012.78.08.311.27.68.6
Exercise level
None2.41.61.52.31.61.5
Slight24.823.822.722.322.221.4
Moderate65.667.468.562.863.563.6
Heavy5.66.06.211.712.012.7
Unclassifiable1.61.21.20.90.80.7
Vegetable consumption (servings/day)d
<113.66.97.414.98.28.7
1–<224.619.219.730.325.425.4
2–<330.430.830.430.732.232.2
≥331.443.242.624.134.133.6
High-fiber grain foodse (servings/week)
<144.128.629.743.128.228.6
1–<315.213.213.416.815.014.9
3–<618.320.420.218.019.819.8
≥622.337.936.722.136.936.7
Multivitamin use
None83.639.340.887.743.243.4
Less than daily
<10 yrs1.61.41.31.21.51.1
≥10 yrs1.01.00.70.91.10.8
Daily
<10 yrs7.728.529.25.326.327.2
≥10 yrs6.129.828.04.927.927.4
Cigarette smoking
Never53.551.151.744.550.249.2
Current20.918.718.022.016.516.3
Former19.626.226.129.530.931.9
Unclassifiable6.04.04.24.12.42.6
Aspirin use (times/month)
None40.135.436.445.038.340.2
Occasional36.635.835.632.031.129.9
1–914.514.113.714.515.013.8
≥108.814.814.38.515.616.1
Estrogen replacement therapy
Never70.059.158.0
Current use
<5 yrs2.63.53.7
≥5 yrs5.08.48.4
Former use
<5 yrs9.511.811.8
≥5 yrs5.38.28.5
Ever use unspecified7.69.09.5
  • a Percentages adjusted to the age distribution of the entire study population.

  • b Includes users of vitamin E or other vitamin supplements.

  • c Includes users of vitamin C or other vitamin supplements.

  • d Based on consumption of seven food items (carrots, tomatoes, potatoes, squash/corn, green leafy vegetables, raw vegetables, and cabbage/broccoli/Brussels sprouts).

  • e Based on consumption of three food items (bran/corn muffins, brown rice/whole wheat/barley, and oatmeal/shredded wheat/bran cereals).