Table 1.

Demographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics of women participating in the WHI CT or OS by racial and ethnic groups

CharacteristicsWhite (N = 131,481)African–American (N = 14,323)Hispanic (N = 6,362)Native American (N = 694)Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 4,148)
NMean (SD) or %NMean (SD) or %NMean (SD) or %NMean (SD) or %NMean (SD) or %
WHI study population
 Observational study7661258.3744552.0351355.240658.5264763.8
 Clinical trial5486941.7687848.0284944.828841.5150136.2
Age at screening, y, mean (SD)13148163.5 (7.2)1432361.6 (7.1)636260.2 (6.8)69461.6 (7.4)414863.0 (7.5)
 50—594132531.4596741.7321850.629642.7146835.4
 60—695988945.5613342.8247939.028040.3173841.9
 70—793026723.0222315.566510.511817.094222.7
Education
 0–8 years8430.64303.0113718.2517.4781.9
 Some high school36682.812719.05859.4669.61363.3
 High school diploma/GED2302117.6196913.9102416.411216.365716.0
 School after high school4958638.0550638.9219335.130844.9142734.7
 College degree or higher5352941.0497035.1131121.014921.7182044.2
Type of insurance
 Private and/or military/VA11782690.21128780.7426669.554780.8380892.6
 Medicaid and/or medicare91707.0171512.368711.27410.92225.4
 None35882.79797.0118519.3568.3832.0
Diabetes ever62404.7198913.95949.311316.43408.2
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)13033627.7 (5.8)1419331.2 (6.7)629529.1 (5.8)68030.0 (6.4)412624.8 (4.6)
 <254832337.1228316.1156624.916624.4241558.5
 25 to <304550634.9462332.6239638.120430.0126130.6
 ≥303650728.0728751.3233337.131045.645010.9
Physical activity, METs/wk
 0 to <33278626.1539739.0224337.323334.5110426.9
 3 to <11.754054832.3451532.6191731.922132.7127831.2
 ≥11.755214141.6393628.4185530.822132.7171841.9
Current alcohol use
 None3354525.7719050.9272743.630143.8240758.3
 <1 drink/wk4343433.2440831.2212834.020429.7121629.4
 1–6drinks/wk3655828.0193513.7111217.813219.23859.3
 ≥7 drinks/wk1721313.26044.32914.7517.41233.0
Smoking status
 Never6489449.9695849.5394463.133549.4297372.1
 Past5662343.5547439.0185829.727340.398723.9
 Current85126.5161811.54537.27010.31654.0
NSAID use2093615.9199613.990314.210214.72075.0
 Ibuprofen use1474911.211237.86209.7679.71443.5
 Prescription NSAID use68005.29436.63195.0355.0691.7
Daily dietary intake
 Energy, kcal1285971649.9 (619.3)132531616.3 (769.9)58841656.7 (789.6)6471638.6 (724.7)39461493.4 (642.9)
 Dietary fiber, g12859716.4 (6.7)1325314.2 (7.1)588415.4 (7.8)64715.2 (7.0)394614.8 (6.6)
 Red meat, med serv/day1285970.7 (0.5)132530.8 (0.7)58840.8 (0.7)6470.8 (0.6)39460.6 (0.6)
 Fruits and vegetables, med serv/day1285924.2 (2.1)132533.7 (2.2)58843.3 (2.1)6473.5 (2.0)39463.9 (2.2)
Total calcium (diet+supp +med), mg/d
 <40070345.5311523.572712.48813.660015.2
 400 to <8003127024.3504138.0185031.418829.1110328.0
 800 to <2003258325.3266220.1143524.416325.293923.8
 ≥12005770944.9243418.4187231.820832.1130433.0
Prior HTa use
 Never5486941.8855659.8328751.734249.3159238.4
 Past2133416.2216215.187913.811716.960214.5
 Current5518142.0358225.0218634.423533.9195247.1
Duration of prior HT use, y
 None5486941.7855659.7328751.734249.3159238.4
 <52857221.7290520.3147023.112718.398823.8
 5 to <101741113.211458.06249.87911.464415.5
 ≥103062523.3171512.098115.414621.092422.3
First degree relatives with colorectal cancer
 None10086884.41022385.0498989.149885.1319283.9
 11666213.9154512.95459.77813.351313.5
 2 or more19611.62532.1641.191.5982.6
Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or flexible sigmoidoscopy6625152.9635546.1218936.628842.7205050.0
 Never5898347.2743054.1378763.638657.5204750.0
 Less than 5 years ago4160933.3382927.9130521.917425.9136633.4
 5 or more years ago2443619.5248318.186614.511116.567916.6
FOBT9552376.3990871.9340757.045768.2305274.5
 Never2959223.7387928.3257243.221331.8104225.5
 Less than 5 years ago7245058.0635146.4223037.431647.2232656.9
 5 or more years ago2282318.3347025.3115519.414020.971717.6
History of colon polyp removal112889.210677.93546.0578.64029.9

NOTE: All P-values <0.001 for tests of association between descriptive characteristics and race/ethnicity.

Abbreviations: VA, Veterans Administration.

  • aEstrogen alone or estrogen plus progesterone.