Table 3.

Male characteristics and their univariate association with a risk of woman of CIN-3/CIS or ICC

CIN-3/CISICC
All couplesHusbands with monogamous womenAll couplesHusbands with monogamous women
Cases/controlsOR (95% CI)aCases/controlsOR (95% CI)aCases/controlsOR (95% CI)aCases/controlsOR (95% CI)a
No.No.No.No.
Education
 ≥Secondary120/1571.0061/1231.00226/2361.00165/1971.00
 Primary school148/1671.21 (0.86–1.68)100/1291.58 (1.04–2.38)374/2991.62 (1.24–2.12)260/2501.52 (1.12–2.07)
 No school21/231.36 (0.70–2.64)12/171.49 (0.65–3.41)92/532.81 (1.83–4.33)66/442.71 (1.66–4.42)
Age at first sexual intercourse
 ≥2131/781.0017/681.00175/1901.00132/1731.00
 17–20105/1292.36 (1.43–3.89)68/1033.02 (1.62–5.64)317/251.49 (1.14–1.96)222/2131.51 (1.12–2.04)
 ≤16154/1414.48 (2.58–7.81)89/985.79 (2.91–11.55)199/1431.89 (1.36–2.64)136/1042.14 (1.47–3.12)
History of sexual intercourse with a sex worker
 Never81/1311.0043/1091.00216/2361.00155/2131.00
 Ever210/2171.72 (1.21–2.45)131/1602.22 (1.42–3.45)473/3491.58 (1.25–2.01)333/2771.78 (1.36–2.34)
History of sexual intercourse with a sex worker while with current wife
 Never81/1311.0043/1091.00216/2361.00155/2131.00
 Never sexual intercourse while with wife113/1421.41 (0.96–2.08)63/1011.68 (1.03–2.74)197/1871.28 (0.96–1.71)115/1421.23 (0.87–1.72)
 Ever sexual intercourse while with wife97/752.32 (1.52–3.56)68/593.21 (1.90–5.39)245/1621.87 (1.42–2.46)218/1352.29 (1.69–3.11)
History of STIs
 Never153/2081.0089/1681.00393/3941.00284/3471.00
 Syphilis only4/41.37 (0.33–5.62)3/22.71 (0.44–16.59)12/130.96 (0.42–2.14)9/101.19 (0.47–2.99)
 Gonorrhea only48/401.82 (1.12–2.95)23/271.81 (0.95–3.43)154/771.96 (1.43–2.69)105/572.26 (1.57–3.27)
 Herpes only2/70.43 (0.09–2.13)2/50.85 (0.16–4.54)5/31.59 (0.37–6.76)4/31.55 (0.34–7.08)
 Condyloma only7/51.88 (0.58–6.06)4/32.47 (0.54–11.36)12/62.07 (0.76–5.62)9/52.39 (0.78–7.30)
 Other venereal disease only32/441.06 (0.64–1.77)24/341.44 (0.79–2.61)51/282.01 (1.23–3.28)35/192.52 (1.39–4.55)
 ≥2 STIs45/401.83 (1.10–3.04)29/302.12 (1.14–3.94)65/671.07 (0.72–1.58)45/501.21 (0.76–1.92)
Number of STIs
 Never153/2081.0089/1681.00393/3941.002/3471.00
 193/1001.37 (0.95–1.96)56/711.63 (1.04–2.56)234/1271.87 (1.44–2.42)162/942.18 (1.61–2.96)
 ≥245/401.81 (1.09–3.00)29/302.13 (1.15–3.97)65/671.04 (0.70–1.55)45/501.20 (0.75–1.90)
Circumcision
 Yes15/361.008/261.00179/1391.00138/1301.00
 No271/3112.33 (1.23–4.43)163/2422.29 (1.00–5.24)511/4491.15 (0.76–1.73)352/3611.33 (0.84–2.10)
Pay attention to uncover your penis and to wash the region
 Yes220/2561.00130/1911.00621/5071.00438/4711.00
 No71/920.79 (0.53–1.18)44/780.75 (0.46–1.21)62/800.60 (0.39–0.91)49/730.61 (0.38–0.97)
Time since smoking cessation
 Nonsmoker83/1371.0056/1051.00149/1831.0098/1481.00
 Ex-smoker >11 years11/82.34 (0.90–6.10)5/71.35 (0.41–4.45)45/501.21 (0.76–1.93)32/471.08 (0.64–1.84)
 Ex-smoker ≤10 years24/291.41 (0.76–2.60)7/201.67 (0.27–1.69)83/791.31 (0.89–1.92)68/661.56 (1.01–2.40)
 Current smoker171/1721.67 (1.15–2.43)104/1361.48 (0.95–2.31)414/2741.85 (1.41–2.43)293/2291.94 (1.41–2.66)
Use of tobacco type by smokers
 Blond37/251.0020/191.00299/2221.00216/1791.00
 Black68/840.46 (0.24–0.90)41/670.42 (0.19–0.97)80/621.13 (0.56–2.28)59/560.89 (0.41–1.91)
 Both82/840.60 (0.33–1.11)47/630.59 (0.27–1.28)74/421.49 (0.72–3.07)55/351.39 (0.62–3.11)
 Others4/21.10 (0.18–6.74)3/11.82 (0.16–20.50)69/540.98 (0.63–1.51)49/510.82 (0.50–1.34)
Use of smoking filter type by smokers
 Filter89/841.0056/661.00277/2051.00205/1651.00
 No filter15/190.80 (0.37–1.73)7/150.51 (0.19–1.42)42/420.86 (0.51–1.45)25/360.63 (0.35–1.15)
 Both94/990.91 (0.58–1.43)50/760.72 (0.41–1.25)154/991.32 (0.89–1.97)114/871.15 (0.74–1.78)
 Others4/21.86 (0.32–10.69)3/13.09 (0.30–31.96)69/540.98 (0.63–1.53)49/510.79 (0.48–1.30)
Smoking lifetime pack-yearsb
 Nonsmoker83/1371.0056/1051.00149/1831.0098/1481.00
 Low no. of pack-years96/1121.41 (0.94–2.10)49/891.05 (0.64–1.71)272/2021.58 (1.18–2.11)196/1741.65 (1.18–2.30)
 Medium/high no. of pack-years106/952.00 (1.30–3.06)65/721.79 (1.08–2.97)263/1981.75 (1.30–2.36)190/1641.82 (1.29–2.57)
HPV status
 Negative130/1721.0077/1401.00366/2901.00266/2531.00
 Positive35/143.25 (1.67–6.32)18/93.68 (1.57–8.62)78/561.22 (0.82–1.81)50/411.27 (0.80–2.03)
 No HPV result/inadequate126/1621.04 (0.75–1.44)79/1201.21 (0.81–1.81)248/2420.83 (0.64–1.08)175/1970.91 (0.67–1.22)

NOTE: Bolded ORs (95% CI) were statistically significant associations (P < 0.05).

  • aAdjusted for age and study country.

  • bCIN-3/CIS model: Smoking lifetime pack-years for the all husbands model is defined as low (36.5–6,022.5 pack-years) and medium/high (6,132–56,611.5 pack-years); and for the husbands with monogamous women model, low (36.5–6,716 pack-years) and medium/high (6,825.5–38,963.8 pack-years); ICC: Smoking lifetime pack-years for the all husbands model is defined as: low (36.5–7,300 pack-years) and medium/high (7,354.8–43,435 pack-years); and for the husbands with monogamous women model, low (36.5–7,665 pack-years) and medium/high (7,829.3–43,435 pack-years).