Table 5.

Association between passive and active smoking history and risk of ICC

Passive smokingaActive smokingb
Couples with nonsmoking monogamous womenCouples with monogamous women
Male smoking characteristicsCases/controlsOR (95% CI)cCases/controlsOR (95% CI)c, d
Smoking status
 Nonsmoker112/1671.00357/4071.00
 Ever246/2401.28 (0.88–1.85)134/841.77 (1.23–2.56)
 Ex-smoker39/541.01 (0.56–1.83)38/311.48 (0.83–2.65)
 Current smoker207/1861.34 (0.91–1.96)96/531.94 (1.26–2.98)
Duration of exposure to smoking
 0 years112/1671.00357/4071.00
 1–20 years101/1081.51 (0.93–2.45)52/351.58 (0.91–2.73)
 ≥21 years137/1241.13 (0.73–1.75)43/301.56 (0.88–2.79)
No. of cigarettes per day
 Nonsmoker112/1671.00357/4071.00
 1–10 cigarettes/day96/841.51 (0.95–2.39)73/461.63 (1.07–2.46)
 ≥11 cigarettes/day144/1521.10 (0.73–1.66)24/171.30 (0.91–1.84)
Smoking lifetime pack-yearse
 Nonsmoker112/1671.00357/4071.00
 Low77/811.44 (0.88–2.36)29/240.56 (0.12–2.56)
 Medium72/781.12 (0.68–1.83)35/184.14 (0.96–17.8)
 High84/701.25 (0.76–2.05)31/210.55 (0.14–2.25)
  • aFor the passive smoking models, characteristics of the husband's smoking history was classified according to the wife's risk period of exposure to HPV and passive smoking as outlined in Figure 1.

  • bFor the active smoking models, the risk of cervical cancer is based upon the woman's history of smoking.

  • cModels were adjusted for age of the husband and wife, study country, level of education of the husband and wife, lifetime number of sexual partners of the husband, history of STIs, age at first sexual intercourse of the wife, oral contraceptive use, parity, and pap smear history 12 months prior to study enrollment.

  • dMale smoking characteristics (smoking status, duration of smoking, no. of cigarettes per day, and smoking lifetime pack-years) were adjusted in the final model accordingly to the woman's smoking habits.

  • eHusband's lifetime smoking pack-years for the passive smoking model is defined as: low (36.5–3,832.5 pack-years), medium (3,942–7,884 pack-years), and high (7,938.75–67,890 pack-years); and the smoking lifetime pack-years of women for the active smoking model is defined as: low (18.25–930.75 pack-years), medium (1,022–3558.75 pack-years), and high (3,577–19,710 pack-years).