Background: The respiratory quotient (RQ), defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide exhaled to oxygen uptake, reflects substrate utilization when energy is expended. Fat and alcohol have RQ values of approximately 0.7, compared with 1.0 for carbohydrate, and approximately 0.8 for protein. Here, the association between RQ and postmenopausal breast cancer risk is studied.
Methods: Paired RQ measurements were obtained, separated by approximately 6 months, for women in the reliability subset of a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study. Linear regression of the average of the paired log RQ assessments on a corresponding log food quotient (FQ) average and other study subject characteristics, including age, body mass index, race, and education, yielded calibration equations for predicting RQ.
Results: Calibration equations, using any of food frequency, food record, or dietary recall data, explained an appreciable fraction of measured log RQ variation, and these were used to compute calibrated RQ estimates throughout WHI cohorts. Calibrated RQ estimates using 4-day food record (4DFR) data related inversely (P = 0.004) to (invasive) breast cancer risk in the WHI Dietary Modification trial comparison group, and corresponding RQ estimates using food-frequency data related inversely (P = 0.002) to breast cancer incidence in this cohort combined with the larger WHI observational study.
Conclusion: Although preliminary, these analyses suggest a substantially higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk among women having relatively low RQ.
Impact: RQ elevation could provide a novel target for breast cancer risk reduction. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1–10. ©2013 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention Online (http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received May 20, 2013.
- Revision received September 23, 2013.
- Accepted October 2, 2013.
- ©2013 American Association for Cancer Research.