Background: Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, is a biomarker of tobacco, nicotine and carcinogen exposure. However a given cotinine level may not represent the same tobacco exposure; for example, African Americans have higher cotinine levels than Caucasians after controlling for exposure. Methods: Cotinine levels are determined by the amount of cotinine formation and the rate of cotinine removal which are both mediated by the enzyme CYP2A6. Since CYP2A6 activity differs by sex (estrogen induces CYP2A6) and genotype, their effect on cotinine formation and removal were measured in non-smoking Caucasians (Study 1, n=181) infused with labeled nicotine and cotinine. The findings were then extended to ad libitum smokers (Study 2, n=163). Results: Study 1: Reduced CYP2A6 activity altered cotinine formation less than cotinine removal resulting in ratios of formation to removal of 1.31 and 1.12 in CYP2A6 reduced and normal metabolizers (P=0.01), or 1.39 and 1.12 in males and females (P=0.001), suggesting an overestimation of tobacco exposure in slower metabolizers. Study 2: Cotinine again overestimated tobacco and carcinogen exposure by ≥25% in CYP2A6 reduced metabolizers (≈2 fold between some genotypes) and in males. Conclusions: In people with slower, relative to faster, CYP2A6 activity cotinine accumulates resulting in substantial differences in cotinine levels for a given tobacco exposure. Impact: Cotinine levels may be misleading when comparing those with differing CYP2A6 genotypes within a race, between races with differing frequencies of CYP2A6 gene variants (i.e. African Americans have higher frequencies of reduced function variants contributing to their higher cotinine levels) or between the sexes.
- Received November 5, 2012.
- Revision received January 9, 2013.
- Accepted January 20, 2013.
- Copyright © 2013, American Association for Cancer Research.