Background: Coffee has been reported to lower levels of estrogen and insulin, two hormones implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis, but prospective data on the relation between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer are limited.
Methods: We prospectively assessed coffee consumption in relation to endometrial cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) with 67,470 female participants aged 34 to 59 in 1980. Cumulative average coffee intake was calculated with all available questionnaires to assess long-term effects. Cox regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR), controlling for other risk factors.
Results: Fewer than 4 cups of coffee per day were not associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, women who consumed 4 or more cups of coffee had 25% lower risk of endometrial cancer than those who consumed less than 1 cup per day (multivariable RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57–0.97; Ptrend = 0.02). We found the similar association with caffeinated coffee consumption (RR for ≥4 vs. <1 cup/d = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51–0.95). For decaffeinated coffee consumption, a suggestive inverse association was found among women who consumed 2 or more cups per day versus <1 cup/mo. Tea consumption was not associated with endometrial cancer risk.
Conclusions: These prospective data suggest that four or more cups of coffee per day are associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer.
Impact: Drinking of coffee, given its widespread consumption, might be an additional strategy to reduce endometrial cancer risk. However, addition of substantial sugar and cream to coffee could offset any potential benefits. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(12); 1–9. ©2011 AACR.
- Received August 10, 2011.
- Revision received September 29, 2011.
- Accepted September 30, 2011.
- ©2011 American Association for Cancer Research.