Background: China's lung cancer crude death rate has increased 6.9-fold from 1973 to 2014. During this time, the country experienced extremely rapid economic growth and social change. It is important to understand the effects of risk factors on lung cancer mortality (LCM) for better allocation of limited resources of cancer prevention and control in China.
Methods: Using three nationwide mortality surveys from 1973 to 2005, Global Health Data Exchange data in 2013, three nationwide smoking surveys from 1984 to 2013, four population censuses from 1964 to 2000, and other datasets, we have compiled datasets and developed spatial random effect models to assess the association of various area-level–contributing factors on LCM. Spatial scan statistics are used to detect high-risk clusters of LCM.
Results: LCM is higher in urban and more industrialized areas (RR = 1.17) compared with those in rural areas. The level of industrial development's effect is higher for men, which accounts for about 70% of all LCM. Smoking is positively associated with regional variation of LCM rates, and the effect is higher for women than for men.
Conclusions: The geographic pattern of high LCM in China is different from that of Western countries. LCM is positively associated with higher socioeconomic status, with more urbanized areas at a higher level of industrial development.
Impact: There is a need to further explore additional risk in the high-risk clusters. The study is about China, but this situation may happen in other countries experiencing rapid industrialization and other developing countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 569–77. ©2017 AACR.
See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, “Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences.”
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention Online (http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/).
X. Shen and L. Wang are co-first authors of this article.
- Received November 15, 2016.
- Revision received January 11, 2017.
- Accepted February 10, 2017.
- ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.