This review is an abbreviated version of a report prepared for the American Cancer Society Global Health department and EMD Serono, Inc., a subsidiary of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, which was released at the Union for International Cancer Control World Cancer Congress in Paris in November 2016. The original report can be found at https://www.cancer.org/health-care-professionals/our-global-health-work/global-cancer-burden/global-burden-of-cancer-in-women.html. Staff in the Intramural Research Department of the American Cancer Society designed and conducted the study, including analysis, interpretation, and presentation of the review. The funding sources had no involvement in the study design, data analysis and interpretation, or preparation of the review.
There are striking disparities in the global cancer burden in women, yet few publications highlight cancer occurrence in this population, particularly for cancers that are not sex specific. This article, the first in a series of two, summarizes the current burden, trends, risk factors, prevention, early detection, and survivorship of all cancers combined and seven sites (breast, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, colorectum, lung, and liver) that account for about 60% of the cancer burden among women worldwide, using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimated 2012 overall cancer death rates in general are higher among women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) than high-income countries (HICs), despite their lower overall incidence rates, largely due to inadequate access to early detection and treatment. For example, the top mortality rates are in Zimbabwe (147 deaths per 100,000) and Malawi (138). Furthermore, incidence rates of cancers associated with economic development (e.g., lung, breast, colorectum) are rising in several LMICs. The burden of cancer among women could be substantially reduced in both HICs and LMICs through broad and equitable implementation of effective interventions, including tobacco control, HPV and HBV vaccination, and screening (breast, cervix, and colorectum). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 444–57. ©2017 AACR.
See related article by Islami et al. in this CEBP Focus section, “Global Cancer in Women.”
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention Online (http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received October 26, 2016.
- Revision received December 9, 2016.
- Accepted December 9, 2016.
- ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.