Background: Patient Navigation (PN) originated in Harlem as an intervention to help poor women overcome access barriers to timely breast cancer treatment. Despite rapid, nationally widespread adoption of PN, empirical evidence on its effectiveness is lacking. In 2005, National Cancer Institute initiated a multicenter PN Research Program (PNRP) to measure PN effectiveness for several cancers. The George Washington Cancer Institute, a project participant, established District of Columbia (DC)-PNRP to determine PN's ability to reduce breast cancer diagnostic time (number of days from abnormal screening to definitive diagnosis).
Methods: A total of 2,601 women (1,047 navigated; 1,554 concurrent records-based nonnavigated) were examined for breast cancer from 2006 to 2010 at 9 hospitals/clinics in DC. Analyses included only women who reached complete diagnostic resolution. Differences in diagnostic time between navigation groups were tested with ANOVA models including categorical demographic and treatment variables. Log transformations normalized diagnostic time. Geometric means were estimated and compared using Tukey–Kramer P value adjustments.
Results: Average—geometric mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]—diagnostic time (days) was significantly shorter for navigated, 25.1 (21.7, 29.0), than nonnavigated women, 42.1 (35.8, 49.6). Subanalyses revealed significantly shorter average diagnostic time for biopsied navigated women, 26.6 (21.8, 32.5) than biopsied nonnavigated women, 57.5 (46.3, 71.5). Among nonbiopsied women, diagnostic time was shorter for navigated, 27.2 (22.8, 32.4), than nonnavigated women, 34.9 (29.2, 41.7), but not statistically significant.
Conclusions: Navigated women, especially those requiring biopsy, reached their diagnostic resolution significantly faster than nonnavigated women.
Impact: Results support previous findings of PN's positive influence on health care. PN should be a reimbursable expense to assure continuation of PN programs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(10); 1655–63. ©2012 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention Online (http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received April 24, 2012.
- Revision received August 10, 2012.
- Accepted August 21, 2012.
- ©2012 American Association for Cancer Research.